Xenohormetic, hormetic and cytostatic selective forces driving longevity at the ecosystemic level

Alexander A. Goldberg, Pavlo Kyryakov, Simon D. Bourque and Vladimir I. Titorenko
Department of Biology, Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec H4B 1R6, Canada
These authors contributed equally to this work
Key words:
Aging, longevity, evolution, ecosystems, hormesis, xenohormesis, link between growth and aging, quasi-programmed aging, anti-aging compounds, resveratrol, rapamycin, bile acids
07/24/10; accepted: 08/06/10; published on line: 08/07/10
Corresponding author:


We recently found that lithocholic acid (LCA), a bile acid, extends yeast longevity. Unlike mammals, yeast do not synthesize bile acids. We therefore propose that bile acids released into the environment by mammals may act as interspecies chemical signals providing longevity benefits to yeast and, perhaps, other species within an ecosystem.